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Electric vehicle battery makers likely to get more time to meet safety norms

Battery manufacturers may get an extension of 4 to 8 months to meet the additional safety requirements that the government has brought in after several incidents of electric vehicles catching Fire, 2 people in the know said. 

The deadline for adopting the new and more stringent safety standards currently is October 1. Battery makers and manufacturers of electric vehicles have been lobbying with the government to provide them more time to comply with the new regulations, saying that they got only four weeks to implement those since the notification came only this month. After several rounds of deliberations among the government, automakers and battery manufacturers, “it is decided in principle to extend the deadline”, said a person close to the development. 

The industry has been seeking time till March 31, 2023 to incorporate the changes as per the AIS-156 Rev-2 requirement and till August 31, 2023 to complete the re-homologation of the battery packs. 

But their demand for phase-wise implementation may not be met, the people said, as the authorities want them to adopt the changes much ahead of the summer months. High atmospheric temperature is seen as one of the reasons for batteries in electric vehicles getting overheated and catching 8re.  Electric vehicle manufacturers such as Hero Electric, Tata Motors, Kinetic Green Energy & Power Solutions and several battery companies said they needed adequate time to implement the changes. Given the scope of amendments proposed, battery packs would be required to undergo significant re-design, re-engineering, validation and testing, according to them. 

“The new standards will require redesign of the battery packs, BMS (battery management systems), as wells as development of new tooling for the aluminium casing and new capital equipment,” said Anand Kabra, managing director of Battrixx, a battery pack supplier for electric two-wheelers. 

Given that the battery pack size may change to meet the new guidelines of, vehicle makers would also be required to change the design and tooling for their vehicles, said Kinetic Green Chief Executive Sulajja Firodia Motwani. 

The new battery packs would also be required to be submitted for re certification to agencies such as the Automotive Research Association of India and International Centre for Automotive Technology. These processes will take time and hasty implementation of the standards may destabilise the nascent electric vehicle industry, said Sohinder Gill, chief executive of Hero Electric and director-general of the Society of Electric Vehicle Manufacturers. 

The notification on the new standards, with the effective date of October 1, came on September 3. That left the manufacturers with four weeks to implement all of the changes, including conducting thermal propagation tests on the battery packs and providing 5 cycles of data to the testing agencies, according to industry insiders.  Further, most of the equipment is imported, which would also mean that they would take about six to eight weeks to be procured and then have them commissioned, they said. 

It is preferred that this is done on a sampling basis as otherwise the infrastructure required would be bigger than the battery assembly line itself, according to the manufacturers. 

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Additional safety requirements recommended in the existing Electric Vehicle Battery Safety Standards (AIS-156 & AIS-038) with effect from 1st October 2022

Posted On: 01 SEP 2022 7:25PM by PIB Delhi

In the backdrop of number of cases of fire incidents observed in electric two wheelers in different parts of the country, Ministry of Road Transport and Highway had constituted an Expert Committee, Chaired by Shri Tata Narsingh Rao (Director, ARC’, Hyderabad), and Shri M.K. Jain (Scientist – G, CFEES, DRDO), Dr. Arti Bhatt (Scientist-F, Additional Director, CFEES, DRDO), Dr. Subba Reddy (Principal Research Scientist, IISc, Bengaluru), Prof. L Umanand (Chair, DESE, IISc, Bangaluru), Dr. M. Srinivas (Scientis-E, NSTL, Vishakhapatnam), Prof. Devendra Jalihal (Head, C-BEEV, 11T Madras, Chennai) as members, to recommend additional safety requirements in the existing battery safety standards notified under CMV Rules.

Based on the recommendations of the expert committee report, the Ministry, on 29th August 2022, has issued amendment 2 to AIS 156- Specific requirements for motor vehicles of L category [motor vehicles with less than four wheels and is a quadricycle] with electric power train, and amendment 2 to AIS 038 Rev. 2 – Specific requirements for Electric Power Train of motor vehicles of M category [motor vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying passengers] and N category [motor vehicle with at least four wheels used for carrying goods which may also carry persons in addition to the goods]. These amendments include additional safety requirements related to battery cells, BMS, on-board charger, design of battery pack, thermal propagation due to internal cell short circuit leading to fire etc.

The notification to mandate amended AIS 156 and AIS 038 Rev.2 standards for the respective categories of electric vehicles with effect from 1 st October 2022 is in progress.

Ministry also has issued draft notification GSR 659 (E) dated 25th August 2022, to amend Sub-rule 4 of Rule 124 of Central Motor Vehicles Rule (CMVR) 1989, for mandating Conformity of Production (COP) for traction batteries used in electric power train vehicles. The proposed regulation will be applicable with effect from 1st October, 2022. Comments and suggestions have been solicited from all stakeholders within a period of thirty days.

Sources :

  1. PIB
  2. MORTH Release
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BIS formulates performance standards for Electric Vehicle Batteries

BIS in the process of publishing two more standard related to batteries for various passenger and goods carrying vehicles.

Bureau of Indian Standard, National Standard Body of India, has published standards for Test Specifications for Lithium-ion Traction Battery Packs and Systems (Performance Testing) for Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles. The standard IS 17855: 2022 for these battery packs and systems is harmonized with ISO 12405-4: 2018. 

This standard incorporates the test procedure for basic characteristic of performance, reliability and electrical functionality for the battery packs and system for either high power or high energy application. This standard is formulated considering real life scenarios for an electric vehicle such as vehicle is in parking (battery is not used for extended period of time), battery system is being shipped (stored), operating battery at low and high temperature etc., accordingly various tests are incorporated in this standard.

Safety and performance are two critical aspects of electronic devices. Requirement of Battery system for use as a power source for propulsion of vehicles are significantly different from battery used for consumer electronics or stationary use.

Electric vehicles are vehicles that operate on electric motor and rechargeable batteries. Over the past decade, Electric vehicles have grown in terms of visibility and availability in the market. For safety of consumer, reliability and safety, Energy storage systems become critical part of any EV. Most of the EVs use Lithium-ion batteries because of its high power to weight ratio.

Further, keeping view on safety aspect of batteries for EV, Bureau of Indian Standard is in the process of publishing 2 more standard related to batteries for various passenger and goods carrying vehicles (L, M and N category)

Sources :

  1. PIB : Posted On: 24 JUN 2022 5:55PM by PIB Delhi

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Environment Ministry Issues Rules on Waste Electric Vehicle Batteries

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India published the Battery Waste Management Rules, 2022 on 24th August, 2022 to ensure environmentally sound management of waste batteries.

Notification of these rules is a transformative step towards implementation of the announcement made by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in his address to the Nation on Independence Day on 15th August, 2021 to promote Circular Economy in full earnest.

New rules will replace Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001. 

The rules cover all types of batteries, viz. Electric Vehicle batteries, portable batteries, automotive batteries and industrial batteries. 

The rules function based on the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) where the producers (including importers) of batteries are responsible for collection and recycling/refurbishment of waste batteries and use of recovered materials from wastes into new batteries.

EPR mandates that all waste batteries to be collected and sent for recycling/refurbishment, and its prohibits disposal in landfills and incineration. To meet the EPR obligations, producers may engage themselves or authorise any other entity for collection, recycling or refurbishment of waste batteries.

The rules will enable setting up a mechanism and centralized online portal for exchange of EPR certificates between producers and recyclers/refurbishers to fulfil the obligations of producers. 

The rules promote setting up of new industries and entrepreneurship in collection and recycling/refurbishment of waste batteries.  

Mandating the minimum percentage of recovery of materials from waste batteries under the rules will bring new technologies and investment in recycling and refurbishment industry and create new business opportunities.

Prescribing the use of certain amount of recycled materials in making of new batteries will reduce the dependency on new raw materials and save natural resources. 

Online registration & reporting, auditing, and committee for monitoring the implementation of rules and to take measures required for removal of difficulties are salient features of rules for ensuring effective implementation and compliance.

On the principle of Polluter Pays Principle, environmental compensation will be imposed for non-fulfilment of Extended Producer Responsibility targets, responsibilities and obligations set out in the rules. The funds collected under environmental compensation shall be utilised in collection and refurbishing or recycling of uncollected and non-recycled waste batteries.

Sources :

  1. PIB Publication GOI , Posted On: 25 AUG 2022 5:45PM by PIB Delhi
  2. Gazette Notification
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This is Why Lithium-Ion Batteries Degrade Over Time

Researchers from the Universities of Cambridge and Liverpool have identified a potential new degradation mechanism for electric vehicle batteries – a key step to designing effective methods to improve battery lifespan.

In a paper published in the journal Nature Materials, the scientists say that they monitored changes of battery electrode materials in real-time over several months of battery testing. Then, they used laser technology to design a new coin cell, also known as a button cell. 

“This design offers a new possibility of studying degradation mechanisms over a long period of cycling for many battery chemistries,” Chao Xu, the first author of the study, said in a media statement. 


According to Xu, after conducting systematic observations, his team noticed that a proportion of the cathode material becomes fatigued following repetitive charging and discharging of the cell, and the amount of the fatigued material increases as the cycling continues.

After witnessing this, Xu and his colleagues dove deep into the structure of the material at the atomic scale to seek answers as to why such a fatigue process occurs. 

“In order to fully function, battery materials need to expand and shrink as the lithium ions move in and out,” Xu said. “However, after prolonged use, we found that the atoms at the surface of the material had rearranged to form new structures that are no longer able to store energy.”

The scientists said that what is worse is that these areas of reconstructed surface apparently act as stakes that pin the rest of the material in place and prevent it from the contraction which is required to reach the fully charged state. As a result, the lithium remains stuck in the lattice and this fatigued material can hold less charge.

Given these results, the researchers are now seeking effective countermeasures, such as protective coatings and functional electrolyte additives, to mitigate this degradation process and extend the lifetime of such batteries.

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Odisha Frames Draft Electric Vehicle Policy 2021; Aims To Become Model State

Bhubaneswar: The Odisha government has come up with a draft “Odisha Electric Vehicle Policy, 2021” to build Odisha a model State in the promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) through adoption, adaptation, research, and development.

This is in accordance with the Central rules under which the government of India has therefore adopted a National Electric Mobility Plan with a commitment to cut emission intensity by 35% below levels by 2030. The Centre has requested all the States and Union Territories to frame their own EV policy. Under FAME Scheme Odisha sold 1423 Electric Vehicles.

Bhubaneswar: The Odisha government has come up with a draft “Odisha Electric Vehicle Policy, 2021” to build Odisha a model State in promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) through adoption, adaptation, research, and development. This is in accordance with the Central rules under which the government of India has therefore adopted a National Electric Mobility Plan […]

As per an official notification issued by the Odisha Commerce and Transport Department, the primary aim of the Odisha Electric Vehicle policy is to accelerate the pace of adoption of electric vehicles in the vehicle segments especially in the category of two-wheelers, three-wheelers and other light motor vehicles.

Government’s Take

Principal Secretary of State Transport Department Madhusudan Padhi said that by 2025 the government has fixed a target to ensure that 20 percent of vehicles getting new registrations should be running by electricity.

The Key Objectives Of The Policy

— Promote the use of Electric Vehicles across vehicle segments among public in the State by facilitating an appropriate ecosystem. The aim is to achieve adoption of 20% Battery Electric Vehicles in all vehicle registrations by 2025.

— Promote manufacture of Electric Vehicles & its components including Battery in the State.

— Promote Innovation and facilitate Research & Development in the areas relating to Electric Vehicles & Battery.

— Put in measures to support the creation of jobs in driving, selling, financing, servicing, manufacturing and charging of Electric Vehicles

Important Features Of The Policy

The Odisha Electric Vehicle Policy shall remain valid for a period of five years from the date of notification.

As per the draft policy, a State-level Task Force will be formed under the chairmanship of Odisha Chief Secretary with other members from various departments including Commerce and Transport, Energy and others.

Apart from this, a steering committee headed by Principal Secretary, Commerce and Transport department has been proposed. The steering committee will ensure effective implementation of the decisions of the State Level Task Force to streamline the adoption of Electric Vehicles in the State.

It is pertinent to mention here that, 82% of all new vehicles registered in the State comprise two-wheelers and it is the most popular segment of vehicles that contribute a major part in air pollution. Similarly, three-wheelers numbers 3.06% and Cars (LMVs) constitute 7.04% of total registered vehicles in the State.

Under the draft policy, the State government has proposed to provide purchase incentives to create demand generation among the public for the electric vehicles.

A person will get 15% subsidy (Maximum amount Rs 5,000) for the purchase of an electric two-wheeler, 15% subsidy (Rs 12,000) for three-wheelers and Rs 1,00,000 for four-wheelers. There shall be open permit for autos (three-wheelers).

Apart from this, 100% interest free loans would be made available to State Government employees for the purchase of Electric Vehicles.

Sources said the Municipal authorities will provide subsidized parking for all personal electric vehicles.  Individual Towns/Cities will prepare city parking plan to encourage provisions for on-street parking places for these vehicles with subsidized fees and EV charging stations.

In order to avail the above incentive, the electric two-wheelers have to fulfill the performance and efficiency eligibility criteria as in FAME India Phase-II. These include; Min. top speed of 40km/hour, Minimum acceleration (0.65m/s2), maximum electricity/ energy consumption (Not exceeding 7kWh/ 100km).

The Odisha government will provide appropriate incentives and other support to ensure that pure electric buses constitute at least 50% of all new stage carriages procured for the city buses in the next five years. A subsidy of 10% (maximum limit of Rs. 20 lakhs per vehicle) shall be extended to the buyers for passenger buses registered in the State.

As per the draft policy, 100% exemption on road tax & registration fees for the first four years will be made available.

You can view the entire policy draft by clicking on the text : Odisha Electric Vehicle Policy 2021

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The Pros and Cons of Lithium-Ion Battery For Electric Scooter

Benefits And Limitations Of Lithium-Ion Battery For Electric Scooter


The Lithium-ion battery is known as the “fuel tank” of your electric scooter. It holds the energy that the DC motor, lights, controller, and other accessories consume. Due to their excellent energy capacity and durability, most electric scooters would have some form of lithium ion-based battery pack. Many children’s electric scooters and other inexpensive models include batteries of lead-acid. The battery pack in a scooter consists of individual cells and electronics called a battery management device that makes it secure to run. More significant battery packs, calculated in watt-hours, have more power and can make an electric scooter go further. However, they also improve the scooter’s size and weight, making it less compact. Also, batteries are one of the scooter’s most costly elements, and the total cost rises accordingly.

Lithium-Ion Battery For Electric Scooter

Li-ion batteries, the volume of energy contained relative to their physical weight, have excellent energy density. Lithium-ion batteries, also known as dry cell “Li-Ion” or “Lithium” batteries, use lithium salts as their electrolyte to release electrons through energy-storing chemical reactions. There is a degree of risk of explosion of the lithium battery due to the damage caused by the heat and its vulnerability to high temperatures, so all manufacturers need to build sophisticated security and safety systems in compliance with EU safety directives. They also have exceptional durability, which means they can be regularly discharged and recharged or “cycled” and still retain their storage capacity. Li-ion refers to many chemistries of the battery involving the lithium-ion. Here is a list:

  • Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4)
  • Lithium manganese nickel (LiNiMnCoO2)
  • Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO2)
  • Lithium nickel cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)
  • Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)
  • Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4). 

These chemicals for batteries represent a trade-off between protection, durability, power, and current performance.

Pros of Using Lithium-Ion Battery Electric Scooter:

1. High Density

Lithium is known to be the lightest of all elements, has the highest electrochemical potential, and has the maximum energy density per weight. Lithium-ion energy density is twice that of the regular nickel-cadmium. The loads’ characteristics are relatively good and, in terms of discharge, behave similarly to nickel-cadmium. The high 3.6-volt cell voltage allows for battery pack designs with only one cell. Today’s mobile phones operate all on one single cell.

2. Low Maintenance

Lithium-ion is a battery with low maintenance, a benefit that cannot be asserted by any other chemicals. It takes 8-9 hours to charge a lead-acid battery; on the other hand, a Li-ion battery is 90% charged in two hours and takes just three hours to charge fully. There is no need to extend the battery’s life, and no planned cycling is needed and does not need prolonged priming. One regular charge is all that’s required.

3. Relatively Low Self-Discharge 

Self-discharge is less than half of that for batteries based on nickel. In contrast to nickel-cadmium, the self-discharge is less than half, making lithium-ion better suited for modern fuel gauge applications. When disposed of, lithium-ion cells do no damage.

4. No Need For A Battery Replacement

After 1.5 years of usage, lead-acid batteries’ capacity is about 50% of the initial total, while that of Li-ion batteries is about 75%  of the initial capacity after three years of use. As the minimum needed life for an E-scooter is three years, while Li-ion batteries do not, current lead-acid batteries require a battery upgrade.

5. Eco-friendly Travel 

Toxic gases like CO, HC, and NO are released from an engine-type scooter. However, since it does not contain any pollution, an E-scooter powered by electricity from a Li-ion battery is not toxic to the human body and the environment. Also, speciality cells can provide very high current to applications such as power tools.

Cons Of Using Lithium-Ion Battery For Electric Scooter

Certain pitfalls need to be weighed against the advantages, much as the use of other technology. While there are drawbacks to lithium-ion battery technology, this may not imply that they may not be resolved or at least mitigated and outstanding output achieved. Knowing the disadvantages ensures that the workaround will also be used to reduce the impact of the disadvantages. 

1. Prone To Aging- Even If Not In Use

One of the critical drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for consumer devices is the aging of lithium-ion batteries. After one year, whether your scooter’s battery is in use or not, some power degradation will be evident. After two to three years, the battery usually dies. It should be remembered that other compounds often have degenerative symptoms that are age-related. Batteries will also only be able to endure 500-1000 discharge cycles of charging before their power decreases. This amount is growing with the advancement of li-ion technology, but batteries need to be replaced after a while, and this may be a challenge if they are installed in the machinery.

2. Protection

To sustain voltage and current within safe limits, a protective circuit is necessary. Lithium-ion batteries are not as robust as certain other rechargeable materials. They need protection from being overcharged and so far discharged. In addition to this, they need to keep the present under stable limits. Therefore, one of the drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries is that they need optimized safety circuitry to ensure that they are maintained within their safe operating limits. To ensure secure operation, it is fragile and requires a safety chain. 

Another part of the safety circuitry is that the cell’s temperature is controlled to stop high temperatures. The overall charge and discharge current is limited to between 1 ° C and 2 ° C on most sets. That said, although quick charging, some become a little warm on occasions.

3. Costly

The cost is a prominent lithium-ion battery drawback. They are usually around 40% more expensive to produce than cadmium cells made of nickel. When contemplating their use in mass-produced consumer goods where any added costs are a big concern, this is a significant consideration.

4. Technology Development

Though lithium-ion batteries have been available for many years, yet some might still regard it as an immature technology as it is still much a developing field. This can be a drawback in terms of the fact that technology does not stay stable. Continually, metals and chemicals shift. However, that can also be an asset since more options are possible since new lithium-ion technologies are being developed all the time.

While not inherently a benefit or drawback, it is possibly worth remembering that lithium acid batteries’ handling in a cold place speeds down the lithium-ions degradation phase (and other chemicals). Manufacturers prefer temperatures of about 15 ° C for transportation. Furthermore, during storage, te battery should be partly charged. Manufacturers usually recommend a charge range of about 40% to 50%.

There are several distinct benefits to the Li-ion battery process. The technology is therefore commonly used, and this is only expected to grow. Knowing the pros and cons makes it easier to make the full use of battery technology.

Depending on housing, use conditions, and battery size, electric scooter batteries can last from 2 and 4 years and between 3000 and 5000 miles. The battery life would be shorter if you don’t maintain your scooter or store it poorly.